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Nepal At a Glance

  • Capital: Kathmandu
  • Government: Federalparliamentary republic
  • Population: 30 million
  • Geography: Situated between China in the north and India in East, West and South
  • Area: 147,181 square kilometers
  • Official language: Nepali (Hindi/English is Spoken in big Cities)
  • Religion: 81.3% Hinduism, 9% Buddhism, 4.4% Islam, 3% Kirant, 1.4% Christianity, 0.4% Animism
  • GDP: Total-$74.020 billion, Per capita-$2,573
  • Currency: Nepalese rupee (NPR), Indian Currency is Also Valid
  • ISD COde: 00977
  • Climate: Spring (March-May), Summer (June-August), Autumn (September-November), Winter (December-February)
  • Main Cities: Kathmandu, Pokhara, Lalitpur, Biratnagar, Bharatpur, Birganj, Butwal, Dharan, Bhim Datta, Dhangadhi, Janakpur, Hetauda, Madhyapur Thimi, Bhaktapur, Nepalgunj
  • Nepal, the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is a landlocked central Himalayan country in South Asia. It is the 93rd largest country by area.
  • Bordering China in the north and India in the south, east, and west, it is the largest sovereign Himalayan state.
  • Nepal does not border Bangladesh, which is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip. It neither borders Bhutan due to the Indian state of Sikkim being located in between.
  • Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, and eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth.
  • Kathmandu is the nation's capital and largest city. It is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language.
  • Modern Nepal is a federal secular parliamentary republic. It has seven states.
  • Nepal is a developing nation, ranking 145th on the Human Development Index (HDI) in 2014. Nepal is making steady progress, with the government declaring its commitment to elevate the nation from least developed country status by 2022.
  • Nepal also has a vast potential to generate hydropower for export.
  • Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), of which it is a founding member.
  • Nepal has long standing bilateral treaties with the United Kingdom since 1923, India since 1950, and China since 1960.
  • The military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia and is notable for its Gurkha history, particularly during the world wars, and has been a significant contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations.
  • The Great Himalayan Range makes up the northern part of Nepal having eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including the highest point on Earth, Mount Everest. It contains more than 240 peaks over 6,096 m above sea level.
  • The Hill Region abuts the mountains and varies from 800 to 4,000m in altitude with progression from subtropical climates below 1,200m to alpine climates above 3,600 meters.
  • The Mahabharat Range reaching 1,500 to 3,000m is the southern limit of this region, with subtropical river valleys and "hills" alternating to the north of this range.
  • Population density is high in valleys but notably less above 2,000m and very low above 2,500m where snow occasionally falls in winter.
  • The southern lowland plains or Terai bordering India are part of the northern rim of the Indo-Gangetic plains. They were formed and are fed by three major Himalayan rivers: the Kosi, the Narayani, and the Karnali as well as smaller rivers rising below the permanent snowline. This region has a subtropical to tropical climate. The fertile and humid south is heavily urbanized.
  • Tourism is considered important industry in Nepal. The hotel industry, travel agencies, training of tourist guides, and targeted publicity campaigns are the chief reasons for the remarkable growth of this industry in Nepal, and in Kathmandu in particular.
  • Tourism in Nepal has thrived; it is the country's most important industry. Tourism is a major source of income for most of the people in the city, with several hundred thousand visitors annually.
  • Hindu and Buddhist pilgrims from all over the world visit Kathmandu's religious sites such as Pashupatinath, Swayambhunath, Boudhanath and Budhanilkantha. Tourism has improved as the country turned into a Democratic Republic.
  • The high level of tourism is attributed to the natural grandeur of the Himalayas and the rich cultural heritage of the country.
  • With the opening of the tourist industry after the change in the political scenario of Nepal in 1950, the hotel industry drastically improved. Now Kathmandu boasts several luxury such as the Hyatt Regency, Dwarika's, theYak & Yeti, The Everest Hotel, Hotel Radisson, Hotel De L'Annapurna, The Malla Hotel, Shangri-La Hotel and The Shanker Hotel.
  • Nepal is popular for trekking, hiking, adventure tour, mountaineering, containing some of the highest and most challenging mountains in the world, including Mount Everest.
  • Nepal is birth place of Lord Buddha and there are several holy sites for both Hindu and Buddhist pilgrims. The Himalayan country is also mostly popular for Hindu and Buddhist pilgrimage tours.
  • Modern-day India and Nepal initiated their relationship with the 1950 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship and accompanying secret letters that defined security relations between the two countries, and an agreement governing both bilateral trade and trade transiting Indian territory.
  • The 1950 treaty and letters exchanged between the then Indian government and Rana rulers of Nepal, stated that "neither government shall tolerate any threat to the security of the other by a foreign aggressor" and obligated both sides "to inform each other of any serious friction or misunderstanding with any neighboring state likely to cause any breach in the friendly relations subsisting between the two governments."
  • These accords cemented a "special relationship" between India and Nepal that granted Nepalese the same economic and educational opportunities as Indian citizens in India and preferential treatment to Indians compared to other nationalities in Nepal.
  • The Indo-Nepal border is open; Nepalese and Indian nationals may move freely across the border without passports or visas and may live and work in either country. However, Indians aren't allowed to own land-properties or work in government institutions in Nepal, while Nepalese nationals in India are allowed to work in Indian government institutions (except in some states) and some civil services (the IFS, IAS, and IPS).

Climatic seasons: (a) Spring : March-May / (b) Summer : June-August/  (c) Autumn : September-November / (d) Winter : December-February

Nepal is one of the founder members of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and is a picturesque country, capped with some of the world’s highest peaks. Spanning a length and breadth of nearly 500 miles by 120 miles, Nepal covers an area of 55,463 square miles, with a topographically varied terrain. 80 percent of its land is covered by hills and mountains and the rest by plains, low lands and river valleys. It has a population of nearly 23 million increasing annually by about 2.7 percent.

Nepal is a predominantly agricultural country with more than 90% of the people engaged in agriculture. The population of Nepal is made up of a multitude of races and tribes, living in different regions with varying cultures, customs and languages. The Gurungs and Magars live mainly in the west and on the southern slopes of the Annapurna, Himalchuli and Ganesh Himal mountains. The Rais, Limbus and Sunuwars inhabit the slopes and valleys of the eastern mid hills.

The Sherpas also known as “Tigers of the Snow” live in the Himalayan Region up to an average altitude of 4,750 meters. The Newars constitute an important ethnic group in the Kathmandu valley which is capital city of Nepal. There are Tharus, Yadavas, Satar, Rajvanshis and Dhimals in the Terai region. The Brahmans, Chhetris and Thakuris are spread generally over most parts of the country.
Though the different languages spoken and written by the people of Nepal are specific to various ethnic groups, Nepali is the national language written in Devnagari script, serving the purpose of the lingua franca in Nepal. The educated people speak and understand English and Hindi as well.

Nepal’s climate varies with its topography. It ranges from tropical to arctic depending upon the altitude. The terai region, which lies in the southern part of the country has a hot and humid climate. The mid-land regions are pleasant almost all the year round, although winter nights are cold. The northern mountain region around an altitude above 3,353 meters has an Alpine climate with a considerably lower temperature in winter as can be expected.

Nepal has four climatic seasons:
(a) Spring : March-May
(b) Summer : June-August
(c) Autumn : September-November
(d) Winter : December-February
Here’s a brief view of the average temperatures and rainfall during peak summer and winter in three most popular tourist areas in Nepal.


Summer ( May- July)
Max (
oC )

Summer ( May-July)
Min (
oC )

Rainfall (mm )

Winter ( Dec - Feb )
Max (
oC )

Winter ( Dec- Feb )
Min. (
oC )

Rainfall (mm)






















Nepal Map

Tourism  in Nepal

The Annapurna range of the Himalayas

Phoksundo Lake

Phoksundo Lake

Kali Gandaki Gorge

Kali Gandaki Gorge is one of the deepest gorges on earth

Marshyangdi Valley

Marshyangdi Valley – There are many such valleys in the Himalaya created

Mount Everest

Mount Everest, the highest peak on earth, lies on the Nepal-China border

Wind erosion in Kalopani

Wind erosion in Kalopani

A field in Terai

A field in Terai

Tribhuvan International Airport

Tribhuvan International Airport. Tourism is a key part of the national economy, with Nepal receiving approx. 800,000 foreign visitors each year

Pashupatinath Temple in Kathmandu

Pashupatinath Temple in Kathmandu, Nepal

Middle Marshyandi Hydroelectricity Dam

Middle Marshyandi Hydroelectricity Dam. Nepal has significant potential to generate hydropower, which it plans to export to India and Bangladesh

Himalayan country

A bridge on the Nepalese border with China, which is the biggest foreign investor in the Himalayan country.