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China is the planet’s most populous country and second largest by land mass. Its civilization is one of the world’s oldest, and it has maintained an advanced economy for two millennia. A single-party socialist state, China has been governed by the Communist Party since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 under Mao Zedong, who would usher in both the Cultural Revolution and the Great Leap Forward.
China has become one of the globe’s fastest-growing post-industrial economies since reforms were put into place in 1978 by Deng Xiaoping and his supporters, and its rapid industry growth since then has led to competition with the United States and Europe. China’s expanding economic and global influence and perceived authoritarianism have contributed to its image as a formidable world power and played into both regional clashes and accusations of censorship and civil rights violations.
Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers, China is the world’ssecond,and either the third or fourth-largest by total area, depending on the method of measurement. China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes and the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts in the arid north to subtropical forests in the wetter south.
China had the largest and most complex economy in the world for most of the past two thousand years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world's fastest-growing major economies. As of 2014, it is the world's second-largest economy by nominal total GDP and largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). China is also the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods.
China stretches some 5,026 km (3,123 mi) across the East Asian landmass. China is bordered in the east by the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Sea, Taiwan, and South China Sea, and shares land borders with a total of 14 countries in the north, south and west.
With an area of about 9,600,000 km2 (3,700,000 sq mi), the People's Republic of China is the 3rd largest country in total area behind Russia and Canada, and very similar in size to the United States. The exact land area is sometimes challenged by border disputes, most notably about Taiwan, Aksai Chin, the Trans, and South Tibet.
India and China signed Education Exchange Programme (EEP) in 2006, which is an umbrella agreement for educational cooperation between the two countries. Under this agreement, government scholarships are awarded to 25 students, by both sides, in recognized institutions of higher learning in each other’s country.
The 25 scholarships awarded by India are offered by Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR). During the visit of Prime Minister Sh. NarendraModi to China, both the countries have signed fresh Education Exchange Programme (EEP) on May 15, 2015. The same provides for enhanced cooperation between institutions in the field of vocational education; collaboration between Institutes of higher learning, etc.
India-China economic relations constitute an important element of the strategic and cooperative partnership between the two countries. Several institutional mechanisms have been established for enhancing and strengthening economic cooperation between the two countries. Besides the India-China Joint Economic Group on Economic Relations and Trade, Science and Technology (JEG) and the India-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue (SED), a Financial Dialogue has also been taking place between the two countries since 2006.
The Seventh India-China Financial Dialogue was held on December 19th, 2014 in New Delhi. A Joint Statement was signed at the end of the Dialogue.
During this Dialogue, the two sides held in-depth discussions on new challenges facing the global economy, macro-economic situations and policies in India and China, progress on structural reforms in both countries, cooperation under multilateral frameworks as well as bilateral financial cooperation. The Eight India-China Financial Dialogue is scheduled to be held in China in 2015.
Many Indian banks have established their presence in mainland China in the last few years. Four Indian banks, namely, State Bank of India (Shanghai and Tianjin), Canara Bank (Shanghai), Bank of Baroda (Guangzhou) and Bank of India (Shenzhen) have branch offices in China.
Tourism in China has greatly expanded over the last few decades since the beginning of reform and opening. The emergence of a newly rich middle class and an easing of restrictions on movement by the Chinese authorities are both fueling this travel boom. China has become one of the world's most-watched and hottest inbound and outbound tourist markets.
The northeast experiences hot and dry summers and bitterly cold harsh winters, with temperatures known to reach as low as -20°C (-4°F). The north and central region has almost continual rainfall, temperate summers reaching 26°C (79°F) and cool winters when temperatures reach 0C (32°F).
The southeast region has substantial rainfall, and can be humid, with semi-tropical summer. Temperatures have been known to reach over 40°C (104°F) although this is highly unusual, but during summer temperatures over 30°C (86°F) are the norm. Winters are mild, with lows of around 10°C (50°F) in January and February.